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Fatherland

The Chilean novelist Roberto Bolaño’s The Third Reich is, like much of his fiction, filled with Nazis, the ultimate evil

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(Collage: Tablet Magazine; Bolaño: Jean Paul Silver/Flickr; Luftwaffe: Deutsches Bundesarchiv via Wikimedia Commons; Messerschmitt: Deutsches Bundesarchiv viaWikimedia Commons)

With The Third Reich’s bold-faced title, one might think that it represents the summa of Bolaño’s Nazi fixation. Perhaps here his visceral realists and his fascist literary critics might merge into some kind of frightening hybrid, a singularity of political and literary fanaticism. Instead, The Third Reich belongs with shorter Bolaño novels like The Skating Rink: There’s violence and literary ambition, sure, but it’s a book more concerned with what happens when a mind submits to its own fantasies.

Told through the vacation diary of Udo Berger, a 20-something electric-company worker from Stuttgart, The Third Reich takes place mostly in a vacation town in the Costa Brava of Spain. Udo is an adherent of an ambitious strategy game that takes varying names; at times, “The Third Reich” is simply the name of the version of the game, or “strategic variant,” that he prefers to play. The game is “a sport on the rise,” and Udo is the German champion. We’re treated to brief descriptions of other strategic variants, diplomatic modules, hexagonal boards, some sort of in-game currency called BFP, as well as clubs, competitions, and industry magazines. (Bolaño was always fond of describing the cultural ephemera coalescing around a literary movement or, in this case, a stringently serious board game.)

Udo arrives on vacation with his girlfriend, Ingeborg. They quickly become acquainted with another German couple, Charly and Hanna, as well as two locals, The Wolf and The Lamb. But Udo is consumed by thoughts of his game, which he’s brought along. He’s supposed to be writing a magazine article about “an unheard-of variant,” he explains. “No one’s ever come up with anything like it.” But he becomes distracted by boozy nights with his new friends, whom he doesn’t entirely like. Later, when Charly apparently drowns (his body doesn’t turn up), the novel shifts as Ingeborg and Hanna return to Germany; Udo stays behind.

Udo doesn’t care much for Charly, but he’s become fixated on the beautiful owner of his hotel and on El Quemado, a heavily muscled, horrifically burned man who rents pedal boats to tourists and, at night, stacks the pedal boats on the beach and sleeps under them. Taciturn and mysterious, El Quemado proves himself a quick study and, as time goes on, appears to gain the upper hand against Udo in The Third Reich. In one of Bolaño’s typically enthralling depictions of hallucinatory paranoia, Udo begins to believe that once he loses to El Quemado, the grotesque strongman will kill him. Tantalizing fragments of gossip indicate that El Quemado might have suffered his burns as a soldier or revolutionary in South America. Does he blame Udo?

One must add some caveats about this being an unfinished, posthumously published work, but there’s a frustrating sense here that Bolaño doesn’t take his conceit as far as he could. Bolaño excels at showing how Udo begins to take the titular game as a substitute for real life, how his possible defeat may result in his death. But there’s little sense of why this game matters, why the fact that Udo, a young German playing as the Wehrmacht in order to change the historical course of the war, might in itself represent something malevolent. (Late in the book, when confronted with a rumor that he’s a Nazi, Udo, credibly, denies it.)

One might say that Udo’s breakdown is a consequence of his arrogance in refashioning history into nothing more than a game—a game he takes quite seriously—but that would be to offer a moralistic interpretation to a novel by a writer who resists them. Rather, Bolaño doesn’t consider the political stakes of what is, at heart, a political story. There are slight exceptions, such as a description of El Quemado staring at the game board: “Muscular and charred, his torso looms over Europe like a nightmare,” Bolaño writes. In another scene, Udo remarks that he’s “in an amnesiac Europe, with no sense of the epic or heroic.” Yet the battle remains deeply personal, verging on solipsism: It’s Udo Berger versus his own degenerating mind.

Writing in 1930, Walter Benjamin accused Jünger of treating war with a “depraved mysticism.” Roberto Bolaño is a more admirable figure than Jünger, as well as a more important writer, but he leaves himself open to a similar critique. (According to one interview, Bolaño considered giving By Night in Chile, his 2000 novel, the title Storms of Shit, redolent of Jünger’s Storm of Steel.) From 2666’s scenes set in Nazi Germany to Udo’s ignorance of his own background, there’s a thinness to Bolaño’s engagement with history, a way his characters skate on top of it a little too easily. Their politics are taken for granted, their battles fought mostly off-screen. In Distant Star, Juan Stein, a leftist Jewish poet who worships a World War II-era Jewish Soviet general to whom he’s distantly related, disappears. The narrator doesn’t hear news for years. One day, Stein suddenly is everywhere. “He appeared and disappeared like a ghost wherever there was fighting, wherever desperate, generous, mad, courageous, despicable Latin Americans were destroying, rebuilding and re-destroying reality, in a final bid that was doomed to failure,” Bolaño writes.

Perhaps this is the voice of a writer who never got to fight the battles he believed in. The most common (and most revealing) account of Bolaño’s political activism is a disputed anecdote about his arrest in Chile after Pinochet’s 1973 coup. After Bolaño spent eight days in jail, and possibly faced torture, a policeman allegedly recognized him as a former schoolmate and arranged for his release. Bolaño left Chile and didn’t return for many years. Like Aleksandar Hemon, whose fiction frequently returns to the author’s Kafkaesque separation from his native Yugoslavia during its civil war (war broke out when Hemon, who spoke almost no English, was in the United States on vacation), Bolaño’s work comprises a literature of absence, the fictions of a perpetual exile nagged by the sense that life’s great struggles are happening elsewhere.

It follows then that Bolaño would turn to Nazis. In the postwar era, they, too, were exiles, ever rumored to be popping up in the world’s hot spots and advising a host of right-wing regimes across Latin America. They were, by inspiration or direct complicity, the great villains of his age, the exemplars of fascism and the diabolical mirror of his fellow radicals.

In Distant Star, which distilled Bolaño’s twinned fascinations—poetry and political violence—into a stiff cocktail, a young poet and aviator named Carlos Wieder takes to the skies to write oblique poetry glorifying Chile. Later, he’s found to have murdered numerous intellectuals, including two writers from the narrator’s university workshop. But Wieder, who took his German last name after Pinochet assumed power, is a cipher, his actions never explained. What’s more is that he seems proud of, or at least unafraid to admit, his crimes; in the book’s most shocking scene, he unveils an exhibition of photographs of his bloody victims. Soon after, he disappears.

At that novel’s end, Wieder is encountered at a distance, but we never engage with him directly. His evil remains ultimately unknowable, and the lingering impression of him is the image of him skywriting in his Messerschmitt—which, of course, was a Luftwaffe plane. How it got to Chile is never discussed, but it, like Wieder himself, seems to imply the dangerous proximity and promiscuity of the Nazi legacy.

Wieder, Bolaño wrote, was “the incarnation of near-absolute evil” and “personified in some way the terrible fate of our continent.” That qualifier—“near-absolute”—is essential, as it indicates some possibility of redemption (even Distant Star’s narrator thought that Wieder should ultimately be spared). It is also, perhaps, an admission that Bolaño’s depictions of evil were incomplete, that while they were ravishing and disturbing and even fearless, they failed to take a more programmatic look at the political realities that spawned them. In their stead, the fantastical symbol of the Nazi—enduring, occult, a strange import from some darker place—would have to do.

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An excellent discussion of Bolaño.

Remarkable. This prose tapestry brings vividly to mind the nasty Nietzschean will to power of contemporary Neoconservatives right here at home.

Spot on discussion of Bolaño. But I must defend Castellanos Moya from your superficial dismissal. His Tirana memoria is not a conventional novel at all, given its structure, its use of irony, and its creation of an absolutely new voice; in fact in many ways it defies convention altogether (it’s very hard to categorize its style). Meanwhile, its investigation of Salvadoran history is hardly “local color,” given the detail of his treatment of the past. Plus, to consider this a novel about World War II is highly misleading. I recommend your readers give Castellanos Moya a try and judge for themselves, and also sidestep your demand that, for Latin American novelists to be interesting, they have to be different from their “European cousins.”

@ET

I did elide much of what makes Castellanos Moya interesting. I heartily recommend “Senselessness” and “Dance WIth Snakes.” The former, in particular, is the kind of novel that Bolaño must have loved, and it’s a clever, dark exploration of political violence. (It also investigates the causes of that violence in a direct way that I wish Bolaño would’ve tried.)

But “Tyrant Memory” I found to be pretty weak stuff. The Clemente chapters had a lot of potential, but he is such an obnoxious, insufferable character that he sucked all life out of any scene in which he appeared. Haydée’s story was much better, but I also thought that Castellanos Moya left her with too little agency. And her narrative felt limited by the diary form — i.e. long on reflection and anecdote, short on action and scenes. I reviewed the book for TNR (link below), so more of my thoughts can be found there. But in sum, I thought that Castellanos Moya would be a good person to take on this period, and yet he seemed to give up so much of what makes his writing exciting in the process (dark humor, clipped language, attentiveness to history, a defiant attitude towards official narratives, etc).

http://www.tnr.com/book/review/tyrant-memory-horacio-castellanos-moya

Thanks for your comments.

Best,
Jacob

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Fatherland

The Chilean novelist Roberto Bolaño’s The Third Reich is, like much of his fiction, filled with Nazis, the ultimate evil

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