Your email is not valid
Recipient's email is not valid
Submit Close

Your email has been sent.

Click here to send another

How Lakewood, N.J., Is Redefining What It Means To Be Orthodox in America

Seventy years ago, Rabbi Aharon Kotler built an enduring community of yeshiva scholars by making peace with capitalism

Print Email
Related Content

Ultra-Orthodox Parents of Children With Mental Illness Face Lonely Struggles

When one teen began bingeing and purging, there were places she could go, but her mother felt she had nowhere to turn

God’s Garbage in New Jersey

Residents paid a rabbi to bury damaged ritual objects. But it’s illegal, and thousands of trash bags remain in limbo.

Rallying Against the Internet

A sold-out event at New York’s Citi Field aims to unite the ultra-Orthodox world against online ‘evils’

BMG’s pragmatic approach informs student life in the yeshiva as well. The Lakewood yeshiva is unusual in that it is a type of graduate school for older students. Most students arrive at the yeshiva when they are around 22, after they have already devoted a good number of years to intensive Talmud study, at a time when they are thinking of marriage and starting a family. A rule prohibits dating during the student’s first six months at the yeshiva (referred to as being “in the freezer”), but nearly all students get married soon after, within their first two years. Of the 6,600 students at Lakewood today, approximately 1,200 are single and 5,400 are married. Lakewood students are highly valued in the Orthodox marriage market. The young men meet women through the involvement of parents and the help of intermediaries, shadchanim, who earn a fee if a marriage results. I met a young married BMG student who runs a successful matchmaking business—no doubt his vantage point in the beit midrash provides him with a critical competitive edge. The yeshiva supports the efforts of students to get married by offering a range of classes on topics thought to be critical to a proper Jewish home, as well as premarital counseling. Married students receive a small stipend from the yeshiva; $85 a week, according to one student I spoke to. Yungeleit are able to get by financially through a combination of the income of the wife, who typically works while her husband studies, the yeshiva stipend, government support, and support from parents. BMG is an accredited college and grants undergraduate and masters degrees. Students therefore are eligible for student loans, Pell grants, and work-study pay. Given their low declared income, these families are entitled to inexpensive or free health care from the state of New Jersey, as well as food stamps.

Most BMG students at some point leave the yeshiva to make money to support their growing families, usually when they reach their late 20s or early 30s. Finding jobs or establishing careers that would provide an adequate income to comfortably support a large, growing family would appear to be a daunting task for a 30-year-old adult male with no real secular education beyond the eighth grade, but BMG alumni seem to have figured out how it can be done. Some go for quick college degrees at state universities or private universities like Touro; others are able to use their BMG degrees in Talmudic law, together with credible board scores, to get directly into masters degree programs in business and accounting. Some are able to gain admittance to law schools: BMG alumni can be found at Columbia and Harvard law schools (not many, to be sure). Many go directly into business, joining a family business or starting their own, which can provide the flexibility of being able to continue to devote many hours on a regular basis to the study of Torah. One full-time student I met owns two drugstores in town and showed me how he is able to track cash register transactions in real time on his smartphone.

Visiting the batei midrash of BMG—the yeshiva has eight main study halls—it is easy to envision how the students could function well in corporate jobs at banks or law firms. Each beit midrash is tightly packed with row upon row of chairs, and the students appear to tackle their studies with their chevrusas, or study partners, in a disciplined, workmanlike manner. They are mostly from the Lithuanian community of Haredi Jews and therefore wear dark business suits rather than the long coats of Hasidic Jews and are generally clean-shaven and well groomed. English, not Yiddish, is their primary language, which they speak unaccented. Wearing a yarmulke, or even having one’s tzitzit strings showing, is no longer a barrier to employment, at least in the New York area. Many careers are of course foreclosed by the lack of secular education, such as the sciences or engineering, but these students have a very practical focus on earning a good living. The material comforts provided by a successful business career—a large house, resort vacations, fine clothes—are not considered, in and of themselves, inconsistent with a life of piety.

***

Israeli Haredis view their American counterparts with a measure of condescension

The “Primacy of Torah” was an apt phrase for the motto for the azkarah, as it hints that there is something else that serves as a necessary supplement to the study of Torah, namely making money. The pragmatic approach of Lakewood stands in stark contrast to that of the Lithuaninan Haredi community in Israel, where the prevailing ideology is one of “Only Torah.” Yeshiva students there are expected to devote their entire lives to the study of Torah; secular education and jobs are actively discouraged. According to Dr. Benjamin Brown, a Hebrew University lecturer whose research focus is Orthodox Judaism and Haredi society, Israeli Haredis view their American counterparts with a measure of condescension: The bourgeois lifestyle of American Haredis may be acceptable “for them” in America, but not in Israel, where the Haredis hold themselves to a higher, less compromising, and more austere standard. Torah study itself in America is also considered by Israeli Haredis to be on a lower level, which Brown believes is supported by the fact that “American bochurim [unmarried yeshiva students] come to learn in Israel, not vice versa.” The same perspective was shared with me by Rabbi Yehoshua Pfeffer, a Haredi religious court judge in Jerusalem. According to Pfeffer, the “mainstream” Israeli Haredi “looks upon his Lakewood counterpart as being part of the American experience of affluence and luxury and generally believes that Torah greatness cannot emerge from America—even from Lakewood.”

I asked Aaron Kotler what he thought of these assessments of Lakewood by Israeli Haredis and, not surprisingly, like a good CEO, he declined to respond. Kotler does not appear to harbor within himself any doubts concerning the rectitude of Lakewood’s religious path and its scholarly achievements, and he would therefore have no need to defend himself and his institution. He may also recognize that behind the critique there lies covert respect or even admiration. Pfeffer noted that Lakewood, and the American Haredi community more generally, is perceived by Israeli Haredis to be more “tolerant,” allowing its members “greater freedom of choice in leading their lives: the choice to work rather than learn is not shunned, the dress code is not as rigid … and the ‘prohibitions’ (against iPhones, iPads, etc.) are more flexible.” Although some see this greater tolerance and flexibility as evidence of weakness and compromise, others “admire the American model and wish there could be more tolerance and freedom of choice in the Israeli Haredi experience,” he said. As the constraints barring young Haredi men from entering the workforce and business world in Israel are beginning to loosen, and with the political pressure unleashed in the last election on Haredi society to “share the burden,” the Lakewood model may become more than a secret wish. The “primacy” of Torah may one day rival or supplant the Israeli Haredi ideology of “only” Torah—another example, perhaps, of the steady Americanization of Israeli society.

***

Like this article? Sign up for our Daily Digest to get Tablet Magazine’s new content in your inbox each morning.

1 2 3View as single page
Print Email
julis123 says:

Too bad the Israeli Haredim can’t learn what it means to work for a living.

Joshua Pines says:

Yiddish has become common, if not preferred, among Lakewood residents, if not the students.

Great article.

Katherine Lipkin says:

I am appalled that these able bodied, highly intelligent students would make use of food stamps and free health care; this is taking advantage of our federal government.

miloslav veytsman says:

I hope is was a sarcastic response

Brad says:

The Greek “orthodoxy” is somehow confusing in this context, as it widely refers to the old Christian church.

chloeross3 says:

Family values supported by the money of all taxpayers (gay and straight, Jewish and non-Jewish) seems like government charity for a specific group. I do not have health care and I need it – not to have children but to have a sense of securitity and less anxiety while having an untreatable disease. I am also Jewish and I must say I admire the Rabbi’s determination to extol Torah and Jewish belief but not, and I am emphatic, NOT at the expense of the American taxpayer. This is stealing and it is wrong. And it is not Torah approved as I understand it. All that money to learn about one religion on the American tax dollar is not right and I am ashamed this is the case. These Haredim who have nothing else to do but have children and learn are not productive. Their spiritual growth is the sole responsibility of their religion and not the rest of us – of any faith or lack thereof. Women work, are baby machines and their husbands learn and they are supported by me??? Ridiculous. The promotion of a narrow mindview, opposition to equality and general bigoted attitudes promited by any evangelical or orthodox faith are offensive and I do not want to pay for them. I have my own bills to pay. And I repeat – I am a Jew.

chloeross3 says:

I agree and have said why. If this were Bob Jones University or Liberty or Mormon State – the hue and cry from US would be deafening. There is no difference.

chloeross3 says:

mine wasn’t

chloeross3 says:

very well written but very sad

itsGabby says:

I agree with you chloeross3; you said it very well.

chloeross3 says:

Thank you so much.

chloeross3 says:

I have no problem with Yiddish – it is a language that should gather all Jews as a common tongue and it should not be allowed to die. But consider that this is another way in which Haredim close their community by intention. Acclimation is NOT a betrayal of faith. For so many thousands of years we have asked for a seat at the world’s table and suffered constantly for it since at least 34 C.E. I think Lakewood is simply another place to grow separatism and divisiveness on a grand scale. A close peep into Haredimish customs and practices screams with inequality for women, ignorance of their own bodies, sexual repression and fanatical values and why? For Torah? Doesn’t it actually say that “Jews not like us; Jews who are not doing what we do are false Jews; not really right with G-d, a shanda and a blight on our people?” Hitler did NOT care who was a frum or a secular Jew. Cossacks did not care. Martin Luther did not care when he rewrote the bible to use us as scapegoats and call us a trash faith. The Taliban does not care. Saudis do not care. Iran does not care. This adherence to a perceived more favored group by G-d is for me, simply a way for some Jews to look down on others. I maintain that we have been looked down upon long enough. It is bad enough to be hated by non-Jews – but for Haredim to imagine they are the Chosen of the Chosen lacks compassion, humility and common decency. Learning as a life’s work may make you like yourself better but it does not make you a better person. QED.

Katherine Lipkin says:

I agree with you.

kotzk1 says:

The article is very well done.

kweansmom says:

I think you missed a major point of this article. Read the paragraph that begins: “Most BMG students at some point leave the yeshiva to make money to support their growing families, usually when they reach their late 20s or early 30s.”

chloeross3 says:

@Kweansmom: With an increase of 4,000 babies in one year alone and this particular sentence – maybe you missed the point. “Given their low declared income, these families are entitled to inexpensive or free health care from the state of New Jersey, as well as food stamps.” The key word here is “declared” in regard to income. Have you ever heard people accuse minorities in general of fleecing the system by having babies to collect welfare? It is never said as compliment. When a journalist qualifies income with the word “declared” it implies that this is what the recipients are telling the government they have in order to fleece the system. Fleecing is an equal opprtunity vice. It can be any color, any faith, any ethnicity. I suspect Mormons fleece the system as well. FYI: it is not okay to have lots of babies and expect or accept welfare – period. I think it is lofty and soul serving to live a Torah existence or an LDS existence or a Catholic existence but the fact is that the expenses of living such lifestyles should not be subsidized by taxpayers. Particularly when the parent faiths or organization have so much money in their coffers that they can and should underwrite this exalted lifestyle absent the government. I did not miss the point and I do not exclude from my point people of any faith who cannot afford their offspring yet keep having them. I had two children and I suspect in my heart I would have liked more or at least another, but I did not have the money to have one more. I sort of believe that any deity who is important to his people also wants his people to be well-fed, cared for and have responsible families. Perhaps the frum in Lakewood should all take vows of poverty and refrain from overwhelming the system in the name of G-d. The same goes for the LDS, the Catholics and any other faith that promotes the birth of many children without considering the costs they incur. No madam, I did not miss any point.

chloeross3 says:

Can you elucidate?

kweansmom says:

I was referring to your comment, “These Haredim who have nothing else to do but have children and learn are not productive.” The article makes it clear that the majority of them do work, but even then have trouble making ends meet. I’m not justifying their making the most of government entitlements. However, portraying them as people who do “nothing productive” and only sit in yeshiva all day for their whole lives is inaccurate. As for how many are making undeclared income off the books, who knows? For obvious reasons, it’s impossible to collect those kinds of statistics.

Just curious, does your point of view also apply to non-religious people who have more kids than they can afford? Single welfare moms, for instance? Would you cut off their free healthcare and food stamps too?

chloeross3 says:

Yes, it does. Gaming the system when you know you are not needy or poverty stricken is just not a very decent thing to do. And it has nothing to do with faith. My point was that these parent organizations of faith with the abundance of money they like to boast and the “have babies” mentality should support their flocks. And it is not about cutting off food or assistance – I am talking about gaming the system by having more children than you can afford. Any children of any kind. Birth control exists. And it does not need to be Rx. Feeding the children and making sure they have warm shelters is essential and I hardly think the children should be the victims of their parents excesses. There are no simple solutions – but please 4k babies in a year. And then assistance for many. Not a good thing or an honorable thing. Falls into a category I like to term “pious hypocrisy” when it is within faith communties. And when folks lie about their income – any folks – they are being dishonest and I pay the cost. Religious or secular. I have two healthy adult children with master’s degrees – I was divorced and received no support from my son’s father. My children put themelves through school. My son was bar mitzvah by the Chabad in Los Angeles. I paid for the entire event with his paternal grandparents. I am not wealthy nor do I think it is a flaw to be middle income or lower income. But people who pay taxes are the support of those children. Why must I do it. And FYI – I am Democrat and a Jew.

Elon says:

How can it gather all Jews as a common tongue when the ancestors of many never spoke it?

chloeross3 says:

I see your point but it was meant more in the desire to not see it die and realize how it did gather so many in the middle ages and after.
Yiddish was lingua franca for Jews all over Europe from Germany East. It was an identifier and way to draw Jews together. Ladino did this some degree but Yiddish was a language spoken throughout Pale of Settlement, in Eastern Europe, Germany and the words traveled through the diaspora. Spiritually it was and is a way to bring Jews into the spiritual fold.
And I also meant to indicate that I happy Yiddish was being revived in Lakewood but that there was a danger of it becoming a divisive factor as well.

kweansmom says:

That’s news to me, but it may be true. Most Lakewood residents I know speak English or “Yeshivish”. Are there shiurim being taught in Yiddish at BMG?

chloeross3 says:

This is what was quoted in the article. Seeing Yiddish renewed and revived is a bright and hopeful thing. This is a language with literature, a huge history and words to express feelings and concepts that modern Ivrit does not. It is indeed the mamaloshen and as such – it is something we should encourage – not just in Haredim communties but in Jewish communities in general – far from an embarassment – people are starting again to realize how important this language was and is to Jews globally. After all as the mamaloshen – it’s good to be kind to mama.

Dovid Brafman says:

very pragmatic article

Marc Lamb says:

How are these “students” allowed to progress no further than the 8th grade? Isn’t there some law in NJ that mandates attendance in an accredited high school? If not, there should be. They may be very knowledgeable about the ins and outs of Medieval pilpul and causuistry, but how is one with an 8th grade education able to get into a law firm or any average company. And even if he got in, I think he would have trouble lasting.. the culture shock would be staggering.

Lakewood’s “integration of yeshiva ideology and American capitalist lifestyle” is not something BMG supports or encourages – this is rather a byproduct of American Orthodoxy. What they do encourage is full-time learning, but getting a proper education or skill for a career (other than the few available as Jewish educators) is the last thing they provide. The amount of poverty in Lakewood is catching up to the Hassidic encalves.

Son_of_J says:

Block voting pays! BMG was just granted $10.6 million by the NJ gov’t, while other educational institutions got much much less, even though BMG does not give a secular education past 8th grade. A shanda.

JPlattim1933 says:

but how is one with an 8th grade education able to get into a law firm
or any average company. And even if he got in, I think he would have
trouble lasting.. the culture shock would be staggering.­ ­http://mybestfriendmakes65dollarsper&#46qr&#46net/kkEj

stacy rast says:

I get paid over $87 per hour working from home with 2 kids at home. I never thought I’d be able to do it but my best friend earns over 10k a month doing this and she convinced me to try. The potential with this is endless. Heres what I’ve been doing, http://www.pro67.com

ginzy1 says:

This is the inevitable result of a growing entitlement / welfare state. Beneficiaries will all try to exploit the “free stuff” albeit with different goals & rationalizations. Not unique to NJ or the USA or Israel. See Europe. The only difference is that since the Europeans started earlier they are now coming to grips with the consequences of the generous welfare state (and trying to figure out a way to put the brakes on it) while the Obamanoids are busy pushing their wet dream of a Europeanized USA.

hg

ginzy1 says:

You are forgetting that these are very bright guys who are used to disciplined study for many hours on end, and most of all are all highly trained in what in the last analysis is highly analytic legal thinking.

hg

J’lem / Efrata

ginzy1 says:

For your benefit, I am recopying here my response above to Katharine Lipkin:

This is the inevitable result of a growing entitlement / welfare state. Beneficiaries will all try to exploit the “free stuff” albeit with different goals & rationalizations. Not unique to NJ or the USA or Israel. See Europe. The only difference is that since the Europeans started earlier they are now coming to grips with the consequences of the generous welfare state (and trying to figure out a way to put the brakes on it) while the Obamanoids are busy pushing their wet dream of a Europeanized USA.

hg

J’lem / Efrata

charliehall says:

Yiddish was limited to Ashkenazic Jews. The large Jewish populations of Italy, the Balkans, Greece, and Turkey never spoke Yiddish. And German and Dutch Jews stopped speaking Yiddish in early modern times.

When the students of the Vilna Gaon made aliyah in the early 19th century; they could not communicate with the Mizrachi Jews who had been there for millenia — except in Hebrew!

charliehall says:

I have no problem with this. They are US citizens and are entitled to the same benefits as any other citizen. And unlike the case in most free democracies, their children will never benefit from government support of Jewish schools.

charliehall says:

There is far more gaming of the system by recipients of corporate welfare than by poor people.

charliehall says:

The US has a MUCH less generous welfare state than any country in Europe, (or, for that matter, Israel). Yet none of them approach the extremely generous welfare state mandated by the Torah and our Rabbinic tradition.

Jeffrey M. Green says:

On the one hand, a typical Lakewood graduate is described by the author as: “a 30-year-old adult male with no real secular education beyond the eighth grade,” yet he also says that the yeshiva is an accredited university? How could that be?

Mark says:

First of all, they have a high-school level education, NOT an 8th-grade one.

And many of them are have unusually high IQs.

Columbia University Law School (ranked 5th in the country) takes sometimes as many as 5 of these guys a year because they do so ridiculously well on the LSATs, far better than the average scores of the Ivy Leaguers Columbia accepts. Harvard
usually takes 1 a year. And I personally know a genius yeshiva student (with a perfect LSAT score of 180) who never set foot in a college, who managed to graduate from Yale Law School and get hired by a top international firm.

If it weren’t for the academic establishment’s hostility towards the yeshiva students’ conservative social values, they might even take more of them…

Between vouchers and charters and the privatization of public schools, tax payers in this country are now funding more religious schools than ever before. Most free democracies that offer public education, offer secular education. Most of the religious schools are private entities in these countries. Personally, I think vouchers and charters are a bad idea, there are too many problematic issues that have yet to be resolved.

RS1961 says:

Yeshiva students may have a “high school degree” from their own high schools. However, the actual value of these degrees – the criteria that were met in order to earn the degrees – remains to be seen. The quality and breadth of their secular education is, from all accounts I’ve read, shoddy-to-non-existent when it comes to things like literature, math, and the hard sciences.

So while these guys may have the study skills that allow them to excel on the LSATs et al, how will they actually fare in professions that rely upon knowledge that is a cumulative stockpile of information gleaned over many years of schooling? A high IQ is a nice start, but it’s certainly no guarantee of professional success in and of itself:

* Can they succeed in fields that require critical thinking, a contextual knowledge of the larger world, or a strong foundation of science or math or the arts?

* How will they fare in professions that require them to work in direct proximity with, or even for, women?

* Can they successfully complete higher education and succeed long-term within fields such as medicine, economics, pharmaceutical research and development, architecture, journalism, graphic design, hotel or restaurant management … ?

So, great – they can excel on one test in one professional area, and maybe even be lucky enough to land a job in that field. But should we really believe that the schooling that yeshiva boys receive prepares them to successfully perform in a full range of professional careers that are available outside of their little bubble, within mainstream secular world?

And if not, are their so-called high school diplomas worth any more than the paper on which they’re printed?

herbcaen says:

maybe you should join the Lakewood community

chloeross3 says:

@herbcaen: What a thoughtful invitation but I am not observant and do not think it would be a good fit. It was kind of you to ask. Gut Yontov.

Eliezer Abrahamson says:

Basically a decent article, except for one – very prominent – aspect which is both irritating and frustrating, and that is the rather condescending attitude the writer has regarding the fact that most Lakewood yeshiva graduates eventually get jobs and earn a living.

The writer seems to imply that the (ostensible) approach of Israeli chareidim to reject work entirely is somehow more authentic and the approach of Lakewood yeshiva (and of virtually all American yeshivos) is the result “Americanization.”

The reason this is irritating is that it implies that the “real” traditional Jewish approach has always been to discourage men from working for a living, which is obviously absurd. (The opposite – and, in my experience, far more common – claim, i.e. that it has never been the traditional position to encourage Torah scholars to devote themselves to full-time study with community support, while not obviously absurd, happens to also be quite incorrect.)

The reason it is frustrating is that it the article seems to fit a common pattern in which chareidim will be criticized no matter what they do (much like general anti-semitism). Thus, if chareidim avoid work they are parasites, but if they work for a living they are bourgeois hypocrites who aren’t fully devoted to Torah.

Ephraim says:

As a Former graduate of this program, I feel the need to clear a the air with a few facts.
Most if not all of BMG’s graduates and attendees have graduated from High Schools and many like my self have graduated high school in NY, necessitating acquiring a Regents diploma.
In addition, many graduates find that the time spent in BMG serves them well in Grad school, (The BMG experience serves as undergrad).
Many like myself will take the necessary pre-requisites to gain entry in to graduate school, where experience and empirical data has shown parity or greater acclimation and success in comparison to the standard Liberal arts major being mass produced in every university across the country.

Many however decide to eschew university and pursue business at some point.

shotskeziel says:

You don’t get to be a protected class if you choose to have 10 kids by 30 years old.

You’re no better than the average drug addict who does the same. The only difference is that you are addicted to religion.

I am so glad I left Judaism years ago.

It’s no better that the polygamist cults where abuse runs rampant (and we all know abuse is the elephant in the Jewish home no one speaks of).

Take off the wigs, shave the beards and the curls and embrace life.

Why live as if it’s 2000 years ago as opposed to living IN the 2000′s.

The crutch of Judaism around your neck as a man born to an orthodox family is staggering.

Got rid of it, and I am more than thankful that GOD (I spell it out) led me to the light.

You all keep being miserable and depressed.

You create your own problems.

2000

Your comment may be no longer than 2,000 characters, approximately 400 words. HTML tags are not permitted, nor are more than two URLs per comment. We reserve the right to delete inappropriate comments.

Thank You!

Thank you for subscribing to the Tablet Magazine Daily Digest.
Please tell us about you.

How Lakewood, N.J., Is Redefining What It Means To Be Orthodox in America

Seventy years ago, Rabbi Aharon Kotler built an enduring community of yeshiva scholars by making peace with capitalism

More on Tablet:

Is the Book of Esther—a Story Told In Human Terms, Not Miracles—a Holy Book?

By Adam Kirsch — Talmudic rabbis, like us, can only study the course of history for the elusive signs of God’s intentions