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Is a Jesuit Good for the Jews?

The Jesuits’ history with the Jews has been rocky, but that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t celebrate the ascent of Francis

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In this Dec. 12, 2012, picture provided by the NCI-Emanue El, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio (now Pope Francis), lights the menorah during Hanukkah celebrations in Buenos Aires, Argentina. At left is Rabbi Sergio Bergman, and at right is Rabbi Alejandro Avruj. (NCI-Emanu El/AP)

The election of a new pope is always an exciting time for Catholics—and with this particular pope, there is more new than usual. While most have focused on the fact that Francis is the first non-European pope in almost 1,300 years, and the first one elected from the New World, at my Jesuit university, the University of Scranton, students and professors are particularly thrilled about the fact that Pope Francis is the first Jesuit head of the church. Not surprisingly, many of those commentators who have concentrated on Pope Francis’ Jesuit identity have examined the Jesuits’ sometimes rocky relationship with the papacy, which in the 18th century even led to the order being suppressed.

Yet surely the election of a pope must also have implications for the Jews—or so we Jews are accustomed to thinking. In this case, it happens to be true. Throughout history, the Jesuits’ relationship with the Jews has been anything but smooth sailing. And yet, in recent decades we have seen a completely new attitude—so much so that Jews should be celebrating the ascent of Francis, who has had close ties with the Jewish community of Argentina, where he has attended synagogue and co-authored a book with an Argentinian rabbi.

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Founded in the 16th century by a Spanish knight, Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556), the Society of Jesus—whose members are known as Jesuits—was noteworthy in its early years precisely because of its liberal attitude toward the “Jewish question.”

In post-expulsion Spain no Jews publicly identified as such on the Iberian Peninsula. Yet there were lots of so-called New Christians—that is, Christians who had themselves converted from Judaism or were descended from converted Jews. Confronted with evidence of “Judaizing” among the New Christians decades after the last Jews had left Spanish soil, the Inquisition had its work cut out for it.

But even before the expulsion, with New Christians throughout Spain, many in Spanish society developed a loathing for those with Jewish blood not any different than what German Jews would confront centuries later. Limpieza de sangre, or purity of blood, was backed by the universities and influential figures in the church, and it helped ensure that former Jews and those of Jewish descent were not able to advance in church or state offices, and for a long time it stood as an unofficial bar to marriages between Old and New Christians.

It was in this matter that the Jesuits remained true to Christian principles longer than many other Catholic institutions in Spain. Facing widespread pressure to adopt “racial legislation,” it was only in 1593, years after various cathedral chapters and fraternities had banned New Christians, that the Jesuits instituted purity of blood legislation. Until then, those with “Jewish blood” were welcomed, and some of these reached high positions in the order, including Ignatius’ secretary, Juan Alfonso de Polanco, and his successor as Superior General, Diego Laynez, who was a significant intellectual leader of the Catholic Reformation. Francisco de Toledo, also of Jewish descent, was the first Jesuit to be appointed a cardinal. New Christians were so common in the order that King Phillip II of Spain termed the Jesuits “a synagogue of Hebrews.” (The fascinating subject of Jesuits and Jewish blood has received a full and expert treatment in Robert Aleksander Maryks’ recent work The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews.)

The New Christian “infiltration” of the Jesuits was sure to lead to a backlash, and in 1593 the society decreed that no one with any known Jewish ancestry was allowed to join, an adumbration of what in United States racial history would come to be known as the “One Drop Rule.” The 1593 decree was only slightly liberalized in 1608, with the new rule limiting the restriction on Jewish ancestry to the fifth generation. Incredible as it may seem, this racial restriction would only be revoked in 1946 (although there is evidence that it had not been enforced for some time). It is not surprising, as David I. Kertzer noted in his book The Popes Against the Jews, that the fifth generation rule was “often cited by both the Nazis and the Italian Fascists to demonstrate that their own racial policies merely echoed those of the Church’s most respected religious order.”

From the 16th-century blood restrictions until modern times, the Jesuits’ relationship with Jews had its ups and downs. There were times when Jesuits were active in stirring up anti-Jewish feeling, such as in 18th-century Poland, and through their Italian journal La Civiltà Cattolica, from its founding in the mid 19th century up until Vatican II. It has also been alleged that French Jesuits were involved with the movement to condemn Alfred Dreyfus as a traitor, in late-19th-century France.

While anti-Jewish prejudice is an unfortunate part of Jesuit history that can’t be overlooked, this is not the whole story by any means. There were always Jesuits who carried the spirit of Ignatius and fought against the prejudice that many of their brothers had succumbed to. It was none other than a German Jesuit, Augustin Bea, who played a central, indeed crucial role in the release of Nostra Aetate in 1965, which set the church firmly against anti-Semitism and inaugurated a new era in Catholic-Jewish relations. Bea’s spirit of tolerance now characterizes the order as a whole, and Jesuits take a leading role in Catholic-Jewish dialogue. While Vatican II had as one of its goals ending anti-Jewish prejudice among Catholics, it is worth noting that, as an Internet search will illustrate, a good deal of contemporary rabid anti-Catholic sentiment focuses on the Jesuits, seeing them as in alliance with, or even controlled by, the Jews.

The years subsequent to Vatican II have seen its promise brought to fruition. This applies to both general Catholic views of Jews and Judaism, as well as the views and activities of Jesuits in particular. This is obvious most vividly when it comes to Jesuit universities. Jewish Studies are now an important component at these institutions throughout the United States, and Jewish philanthropists, recognizing the opportunity for a new chapter in Jewish-Christian relations, have funded chairs of Jewish studies at Jesuit (and other Catholic) universities.

My own experience, having taught at a Jesuit university for the past 17 years, is that Jews can ask for no better friends than the Jesuits with whom I have been privileged to work. They have welcomed me and encouraged me to share in the ideals of Jesuit education, which is often characterized as “finding God in all things,” a sentiment that can also be found in many classic Jewish sources. Not long after I arrived in Scranton I was invited to deliver a lecture to the exceptional students who are part of my university’s Jesuit Liberal Arts Honors Program. The title of my talk was “A Jesuit University as Seen Through Jewish Eyes.” That a Jewish professor would be invited to share Jewish wisdom on what he saw as the strengths and weaknesses of Scranton’s Jesuit education illustrates more than anything else how far we have come.

One result of the election of a Jesuit pope is that many Jews are asking the perennial Jewish question: Is it good or bad for the Jews? If the welcome my colleagues and I have received at our respective Jesuit institutions is any guide, then the answer must be a resounding, “Good, very good.”

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I have a question: what does it matter to us now? I can’t think of anything.

I went to Loyola in Chicago and appreciated the spiritual commitment to education and repairing the world. I could relate…and I don’t think I was the only one weirded out by the cross on the wall in our History of U.S. Sexuality class.

Some of my best friend are Jesuits! (Where have I heard those sentiments before??)

My only experience with Catholic educators intense and inspiring at Tampa Jesuit. These people were earnest educators and administrators. Jewish or whatever, they really cared about the development of our minds and our character.

There are great affinities between Christian Socialism and social democratic Jews, as I explained here: http://clarespark.com/2011/07/16/disraelis-contribution-to-social-democracy/. “Disraeli’s contribution to social democracy.” Both responded to the Industrial Revolution and the fearsome red specter unleashed by the French Revolution, and in Disraeli’s case, by Chartism.

john sanders says:

I am a Jewish teacher who worked as the coordinator of a Secondary School Gifted Program in a school where the department heads were Jesuit seminarians.Although hired ostensibly for 10 years I continued to work for the school for 28 years.Although there were exceptions my experience of my Catholic colleagues was that with respect to the Jewish community my colleagues were recidivist, reactionary, anti-democratic, and boorish when it came to the coexistence of Jews and gentiles in the Ontario state funded education system .Ontario courts prohbited teachers from suing a school board for discrimination. Grievances had to be grieved through a denominational teachers’ organization which favoured Catholics.The ideological rump of the school refused to recognize the legitimacy of the State of Israel, disputed the coexistence of Jew and gentile, I never shared an office with a colleague over 28 years, and was oftentimes forbidden to speak.,The administration tried to prevent a Jewish colleague from teaching students,in classes,,and imputed the mere existence of a non confoming Jewish teacher in their establishment as a threat to the sanctitiy and integrity of themselves and their students. They began staff meetings with a prayer which protected them from the contamination of a Jewish presence in their school. They were even more irrational in their treatment of any Protestant hired in their school. hey were in a state of denial about this.On the whole they kept a closed shop feeling threatened by ANY competition for jobs.The school was good at mathematics and science as academic disciplines, but pathetic when it came to liberal; arts and humanities subjects which HAD to have a Catholic emphasis even when this was not relevant to the pujrpose of a course.I refused to teach a course on World Religions which included a unit on Judaism from a non-Jewish point of view..The school aligned itself with fascist pro life movements which set out to persecute Jewish doctors in local ocal hospitals as child killers. My refusal to play along with that almost resulted in losing my job.Clearly there are more intelligent and less intelligent Jesuits and the school had been taken over by another religious order ,, nevertheless the troglodyte,ignorant racist mien of the school left little hope for a Jewish Jesuit rapprochement. Later I discovered that the policy of the school mirrored systemic discrimination within the whole system backed up by Ontario human rights law.. Of course there were one or two “enlightened” members in the system having little influence on the system as a whole. In the Catholic school system I worked in, the anti-semitic, anti-Judaic cream rises to the top so one is occasionalyy dealing with suprintendants whose main qualification is an inveterate ambracing of Catholic prejudice if not publicly then privately. Poison pen letters from catholic colleagues both from outside and inside our school were par for the course.

jacqueline cole says:

thankyou

Needless to say, Jesus himself, nice Jewish boy that he was, would not have been allowed into the Jesuits. This sort of crap never fails to amaze me.

Casey Loring says:

It matters, because sadly, there is alot of dangerous anti-Jewish hatred and propaganda being spread in the world.

oaklandj says:

Yes, fortunately (!), since they absolutely must hate and scapegoat someone, they’ve turned to LGBT people instead of Jews. We should all breathe a collective sigh of relief…not.

All Jesuit teachings are based on the Pharisee Paul of Tarsus who was a student of Gamaliel from the Hillel school of thought. All present day rabbinical teachings are based on the Hillel school of thought.

This is explains why the Jesuits and the rabbis have so little understanding of the word of God: both groups are obsessed with the words of men….

Isn’t most of that hatred coming from the Islamic world? Of course, Catholicism set the stage for most of our troubles in last 1000 years.

darcheinoam@yahoo.com says:

Marc is usually on target but this his assessment is naive. His experience is with American Catholics, a very different (liberal) breed of Catholics indeed. By contrast, don’t expect anything anything new in Roman Catholicism from this pope. .

1. the university of scranton needs a department of jewish studies as much s an elephant needs a tricycle
2. the Jesuits have been around for quite some time; some have been as intolerant of Jews as any Catholic group; some have been just plain indifferent as Jewish interests did not enter into their spheres of activity or influence
3. Jesuits in power can differ greatly from Jesuits out of power
4. It’s time that Jews stop opining on issues of which they have neither knowledge nor authority

sandythescot says:

Try teaching in Scotland in the catholic section. Make your hair stand on its end.
Justice for Palestine.!
“No Peace” without Justice.

JosipBrozDobarSkroz says:

At least he’s not a Nazi like Benedict

sswallonie says:

Nobody cares what you Jews think about Catholics or the Jesuits.

Understand this: we are going to deal with you once and for all.

sswallonie says:

Pope Benedict is a great man.

Mind your tongue, jew.

sswallonie says:

Social democracy is degenerate filth and will be cleansed from our sacred lands. I’d suggest you and the rest of your maggot tribe start loading up the boats and head for Itzalie.

Stuart Dauermann says:

Did you go to school to become an idiot or did it come naturally? Antisemites like you have been trying to deal with us Jews “once for all” since Pharaoh in the days of Moses. Despite all the persecutions, pogroms, and carnage your envious hatred could devise, we have not only survived, but we remain a force to be reckoned with in the world. Your Savior, the Risen Jesus, remains a circumcised Jew, and is known in the New Testament as “the Lion of the Tribe of Judah.” I suggest you repent of your stupid and adolescent petulant and jealous hatred of his people, before He returns to administer to you the judgment you deserve.

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Is a Jesuit Good for the Jews?

The Jesuits’ history with the Jews has been rocky, but that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t celebrate the ascent of Francis

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