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A Mobster in the Family

My husband’s great-uncle was generous and entertaining—and a member of Detroit’s Jewish crime syndicate

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Boesky’s delicatessen on 12th and Hazelwood in Detroit, Nov. 24, 1937, after the fatal shooting of gangster Harry Millman; “Millman’s death signaled the end of the Purple Gang as a force in organized crime in Detroit.” From Robert A. Rockaway in Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 20.1 (2001) 113-130 (The Detroit News via Virtual Motor City collection, Wayne State University Library.)

In Gangster Squad, a movie opening Friday, Sean Penn plays Meyer “Mickey” Cohen, a ruthless Jewish mobster who operated in Chicago, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles in the mid 20th century. Cohen, like many of his colleagues, was the son of poor immigrant parents who was enticed by the financial rewards of organized crime. In a 1957 interview with Mike Wallace, Cohen recalled, “I got a kick out of having a big bankroll in my pocket. Even if I only made a couple hundred dollars, I’d always keep it in fives and tens so it’d look big. I had to hide it from my mother, because she’d get excited when she’d see a roll of money like that.”

Cohen wasn’t the only Jewish mobster carrying around piles of cash. In fact, I discovered just a few years ago that I’ve got a gangster just like him on my own family tree.

My husband recalls his Great Uncle Sam showering him and his siblings with bills from his bankroll at b’nai mitzvah and other family events. At the time, my husband had no idea that the man behind the bills was actually career criminal Sammy “The Mustache” Norber, an associate of Detroit’s notorious Jewish crime syndicate the Purple Gang. What Cohen was to Los Angeles, the Purple Gang was to Detroit—a Jewish gang feared by even Al Capone’s Chicago mob.

My husband was a teenager when he learned of his great uncle’s true identity, after a front-page news story revealed that Norber had been convicted of stealing a truckload of aspirin. While the family jokes flew (“He must have had a bad headache!”), the seriousness of this information didn’t seem to make a strong impression. While the notion of having a gangster in the family has fascinated me since I learned of Sam’s existence early in my marriage, my husband and his relatives remain nonplused. Their Uncle Sam is remembered more for his great sense of humor than for his career choices.

***

Samuel Norber was born in 1911 in southern Illinois, where his Russian immigrant parents, Aaron and Mollie, had arrived four years earlier along with Sammy’s three older sisters. Aaron sold dry goods to the Italian miners who worked the region’s coal fields. During the 1920s, the family, which grew to include six children, moved to St. Louis. Family lore has it that Sammy was a promising violinist, but instead of practicing, he ran wild in the city streets. It was there that he got a taste for gang life, joining the predominately Irish Hogan Gang. Sammy’s involvement promptly landed him at the National Training School for Boys in Washington, D.C., a juvenile rehabilitation facility. It is not clear whether he was sent to the facility by his parents or by the police. Either way, he didn’t stay long; in 1928, 17-year-old Norber and a buddy escaped the school, slashing their way out of a window screen.

While most of his immediate family remained in St. Louis, Sammy moved to Detroit, where his eldest sister, Sarah—my husband’s grandmother—had set up house with her family. In Detroit, he connected with the Purple Gang. Led by the four Bernstein brothers Abe, Ray, Joe, and Izzy, the Purple Gang started bootlegging during Prohibition, terrorizing the docks, and moving eventually into extortion and murder.

Robert Rockaway, author of But He Was Good to His Mother: The Lives and Crimes of Jewish Gangsters, describes the background of many Jewish mobsters: “The gang members were second-generation Americans whose parents had immigrated from Eastern Europe. Most of the boys had been born in the United States during the first decade of the twentieth century.” These young men, born into poverty and with little education, came of age at the start of the Depression and frequently found themselves barred from desirable job opportunities. Mob life offered promotions, romance, and all the trimmings of corporate America, albeit with a few additional job hazards. Norber, a relative newcomer to the group, claimed the nickname “The Mustache,” distinguishing him from fellow members also named Sam, who took nicknames like “The Gorilla”, “Lefty,” and “Sammy Purple.”

During its heyday, the Purple Gang was of such concern to federal authorities that J. Edgar Hoover himself wrote to the Commander of Naval intelligence in 1934 regarding an alleged Purple Gang plot to destroy the Panama Canal. The plot didn’t pan out, but legend has it that the Purple Gang did control most of Detroit’s illicit activities, in addition to offering protection to Jewish interests under threat from Father Charles Coughlin. According to the Jewish Virtual Library, Purple Gang associates also provided union-busting services to business owners—Jews and gentiles alike.

Sam Norber (left) with Jackie Kannon (right) from their album 'Prose from Cons,' 1961
Sam Norber (left) with Jackie Kannon (right) from their album Prose From Cons, 1961. (Courtesy of the author.)

While his siblings built legitimate careers and families, Norber used his skills as a showman and a thief to mastermind thefts—although, according to the family, he stayed out of more violent gang actions. During the 1940s, he took several long “vacations” as a result of his activities, including one to Michigan’s Marquette State Prison, where he was fingered as the kingpin of a prison drug-smuggling ring. Despite receiving a 20- to 30-year sentence for armed robbery, Norber was out on parole by 1950. Always a showman, he used his engaging sense of humor to land emcee gigs at Detroit’s fashionable 509 Nightclub.

Apparently inspired by an impressive 1950 heist of the Brinks armored car company in Boston that yielded the robbers over $1 million, Norber was involved in planning a similar job in Cleveland. On a tip, police tracked him to a Cleveland apartment where they discovered imitation Brinks guard uniforms, but no trace of Norber. Eventually, police caught up with the fugitive and sent him to Michigan’s Jackson State Prison. Norber again put his comedic skills to good use: He emceed prison shows and in 1961, Norber, along with a few other Jackson State inmates, recorded and released a comedy album. The LP, known as Prose From the Cons, was produced by comedian Jackie Kannon with the blessing of the prison chaplain, Rabbi Morris Shapiro.

Once free from prison, Norber and an associate drove to New York City and received 77 boxes of stolen pharmaceuticals in 1964. As the two men steered their truck toward the Lincoln Tunnel, FBI agents arrested them. The case was appealed, and the men were not convicted until late 1968. Meanwhile, Norber stayed out of jail, marrying Esther Goodman in Las Vegas in 1969. Just two years later, he was again indicted, this time for masterminding the aspirin-truck heist.

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Very nicely written. I have always been fascinated by Jewish mafia history.

I think the GI bill was huge. Tough Jewish kids came back from the war and all of a sudden had another way to go.

Dick Jones says:

There was an ex-cop from Chicago who made aliyah to Israel, named Norber – he became a cop there, too and was nicknamed “the refrigrator” because he was so huge, was he related? (He looked like the big guy in the 1972 picture on the right)

This is a fascinating story & I thoroughly enjoyed reading it. I think all families have black sheep as my mother used to call her brother. My uncle was thrown out of a nursing home for swindling the old women out of their money. To this day I find it hard to believe. Thanks again for the story.

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A Mobster in the Family

My husband’s great-uncle was generous and entertaining—and a member of Detroit’s Jewish crime syndicate