On this day in 1814 the Scandinavian country ratified the constitution that brought it into the enlightened age in all ways except one: the inclusion of Jews. It took the poet Henrik Wergeland to open his compatriots’ eyes to their mistake.
Nazis sought to eliminate the Jews from their future racial empire. Poles wanted to create a state for them in Palestine. Historian Timothy Snyder makes the case that in the 1930s the two aims may have converged. But was Poland an ally of the Jews or a pioneer in the art of anti-Semitic politics?