Before Ehrenberg and Grossman, there was Babel, and before anyone felt the need to write books about tough Jews in order to show that Jews could also be tough, there was Babel. He was the Jewish Hemingway and the Jewish Flaubert in the same story and sometimes in the same sentence; there has never been a Jewish writer with a wider range of human sympathy and insight. “My journalistic work gave me a lot, especially in the sense of material,” Babel once explained. “I managed to amass an incredible number of facts, which proved to be an invaluable creative tool. I struck up friendships with morgue attendants, criminal investigators, and government clerks. Later, when I began writing fiction, I found myself always returning to these ‘subjects,’ which were so close to me, in order to put character types, situations, and everyday life into perspective. Journalistic work is full of adventure.”